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New Technology

Applying Printing-Press Rules To Digital Books

The New York Public Library has 87 branches, but recently some patrons have decided to forgo all of them, and visit the stacks in their living rooms instead.
As the popularity of e-books has increased, libraries across the country have installed virtual stacks. At the New York Public Library’s website, patrons can check out audio books and e-books, temporarily downloading items directly to their computers or mobile devices, without ever stepping inside a physical library. “As our readership goes online, our materials dollars are going online,” Christopher Platt, the director of collections and circulating operations for the New York Public Library told The New York Times.(1) The American Library Association estimates that two out of every three libraries now offer e-books.
But a recent decision by HarperCollins may slow the growth of libraries’ digital collections. The publisher announced this month that it will set a lending limit for new e-books it sells to libraries. Under the new policy, after a HarperCollins e-book is checked out 26 times, it will self-destruct. The limit is intended to provide a digital equivalent of the ordinary wear and tear that, over time, causes paper books to expire.
The restriction raises interesting copyright issues. In the U.S., libraries are able to lend books as a result of what is known as the “right of first sale.” This legal principle allows the purchaser of a particular iteration of a copyrighted work to resell or lend it without permission from the copyright holder, so long as no additional copies are made. Once I have bought a copy of a book, CD or DVD, it is mine to do with as I wish.
This principle, fairly straightforward when applied to physical objects, becomes more complex for “objects” such as MP3 files or e-books that exist only as bits of digital information. In response to file-sharing sites, which attempted to apply the doctrine of first sale to digital content, copyright holders began to assert that content transmitted digitally was licensed rather than sold. Since there was never any actual sale, they claimed, the right of first sale did not apply and they could, as a result, exercise greater control over how the content was used. End User License Agreements were created, requiring customers to agree that, though they seemed to be paying money to acquire a product, they were, in fact, not buying anything. By asserting a right to limit libraries’ use of e-books, HarperCollins is essentially claiming that its e-books are, like software programs, licensed rather than sold.
The principle of “fair use” provides further information on how copyrighted works can be used. It is less directly applicable to library e-books, since it applies primarily to the replication of portions of copyrighted works rather than to the use of individual copies of whole works. But it offers some useful general guidelines for considering what constitutes copyright infringement. According to the laws on “fair use,” individuals and courts examining whether a particular use is fair or not are instructed to consider “the effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work.”
Publishers argue that unlimited library access to e-books would undercut their sales. If e-books are readily available to “check out” for free at any time, they worry, customers would have little reason to click “buy” rather than “borrow.” HarperCollins said in a statement about its new policy, “We have serious concerns that our previous e-book policy, selling e-books to libraries in perpetuity, if left unchanged, would undermine the emerging e-book ecosystem, hurt the growing e-book channel, place additional pressure on physical bookstores, and in the end lead to a decrease in book sales and royalties paid to authors.”(2)
While the existing case law is murky, I am inclined to believe that, regardless of the possible consequences for publishers, the “right of first sale” applies.
But I doubt libraries will sue to win the point. While the “right of first sale” protects purchasers of copyrighted material, there is no “right to first sale.” If selling e-books to libraries hurts their profits, publishers are free to simply refuse to do business with libraries. In fact, Simon & Schuster and Macmillan, two of the largest trade publishers in the U.S., currently do precisely that.
Just as libraries depend on publishers, publishers depend on libraries for a large portion of their sales. Sales to libraries can account for 7 to 9 percent of a publisher’s overall revenue, two major publishers told The New York Times. Like it or not, publishers and libraries are locked in a relationship of mutual interdependence.
My guess is that publishers and libraries ultimately will find a solution that both can accept. Publishers might, for example, delay release of popular new e-books to libraries, forcing those who want to read the book …

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Science And Technology News

The Role Of Digital Technology In Long Distance Relationships

I was involved in a long distance relationship for about 2 years. Let’s call her Gwen. She was a cousin of my friend but grew up in the US. She was born here in Singapore but moved over when she was 5 years old.
She added me on Facebook and we talked online several times. We met up a few times when she would come back to Singapore for trips to see relatives and such.
Gwen was special. I never got along so well with a girl. It was a case of where we clicked from the first moment we started to talk. I felt no fear, no shyness and no lack of confidence. I could be me and not try to impress her. She understood and laughed at whatever lame jokes I cracked. Similarly, I found her to be a smart, funny and an attractive girl. Soon enough, I started going on Facebook 24/7 hoping to catch her online so that we could chat.
But long distance relationships are the hardest of all. I asked several friends about their experiences. A friend’s older sister, Cecilia, studied in Perth, Western Australia about 12 years ago. She said that it was difficult. Back in her day, she had email and ICQ. But it was on a 56k dial up modem so it was very, very slow. The school’s computer lab was running on IBM machines with MS-DOS software, not even Windows.
Digital cameras were around but they were beyond what a constantly broke student could afford. So her boyfriend had to develop photos the old fashioned way and send them to her via snail mail.
But now in present day, all cellphones have cameras and you can immediately take a photo and send it via “whatsapp”. Everyone has a Facebook account and a webcam is standard with every laptop. Skype lets you make phone calls for free. There are even websites like View2gether and SeeToo that let couples view photos and videos in real time.
I know of a couple that celebrated via webcam. The boyfriend bought ordered a cake and blew out the candle for his girlfriend on Skype. So in a way, technology has made long distance relationships a whole lot easier to bear.
But although there are technologies and platforms that let you stay connected, it doesn’t necessarily mean you communicate better. Cecilia mentions that since she had to be so frugal back when she was a student, she really looked forward and treasure those phone calls with her boyfriend. They were forced to communicate better. “We didn’t want to waste time arguing,” she says.
Another thing I realized that although I could see Gwen, say “hi” and hear her voice, I couldn’t reach out and touch her, give her a hug nor feel her skin on mine. I could not physically be there for her when she needed me the most. The simple things that most couples take for granted were denied to us.
Technology is not the answer. Some couples in long distance relationships are still going strong but Gwen and I have broken up. There is no substitute for the effort, patience and time that needs to be invested in a relationship to make it flourish. So far, there is no technology that can help you out on that.…

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New Computer Technology

Daily Malayalam News Papers Read Now At Internet As Digital E Paper

KNOWING the basics of hypertext markup language, is sort of a pre-requisite for communication officers in the rest of the world. I imply, I find out about reading newspapers and magazines on the internet with links to movies, but to have an actual newspaper to carry in my hand, to have the ability to view transferring footage is something I’ve never heard of. It’s so necessary to find unbiased and edifying information sources as a result of usually, women’s and minorities’ representations change into skewed as a result of media attention and rankings that these salient, memorable, however unreliable photos bring to the Big Six.

They have simplified the deception by taking to the web rather than attending a hospital emergency room or doctor’s office. The @CNN twitter account serves as a supply of real time information protection that’s dedicated to masking a wide range of world subjects and serving as a trusted source of knowledge. Rather, it may be seen as a system that alerts journalists to tendencies or issues hovering beneath the news radar. In part one I talked about one thing enjoyable: the early days of public newbie radio.

Guattari’s involvement with French free radio was not limited to this specific station and he was also involved with Radio Libre Paris and later Radio Tomate amongst others. I know it is a sluggish news day when I see an enormous article about how farmers are planting more corn as a result of corn prices are up. Anybody who’s had a fundamental economics class gets that one. This also means you’re greater than prone to get throughout tons of literary disasters, as a result of not all Internet authors are gifted and good. Anyone can access this hidden Internet very easily, however should you determine to go exploring please be very cautious.

Now anytime you go surfing to Facebook, just click the list out of your Favorites that you simply’re interested by scrolling, and you’ve got your very own customized news feed to peruse! The TV viewer or news listener missing such psychological preparedness, to them, a information program is barely a type of rousing gentle present. Recorded programmes could be ‘moved’ to the Video space of your XMB, and then copied to any supported machine (see above) for playback whilst cellular.

It is attending to the purpose the place it seems who can fight towards the powers that be if the leaders of the nations are afraid of them…seek for Lindsey Williams on youtube. The roles embody among different information gathering, writing, editing, designed, transmission, distribution and manufacturing. You may entry preferences from the vertical menu on the left aspect of your News Feed web page. My pricey Immartin, we dwell in ‘shallow and business’ instances when the primary rule is: ‘any information is nice information for publicity’.…